PG_DUMP(1)              PostgreSQL Client Applications              PG_DUMP(1)

NAME
       pg_dump – extract a PostgreSQL database into a script file or other archive file

SYNOPSIS
       pg_dump [ option… ]  [ dbname ]

DESCRIPTION
       pg_dump  is a utility for backing up a PostgreSQL database. It makes consistent backups even if the database is being used concurrently.  pg_dump does not
       block other users accessing the database (readers or writers).

       Dumps can be output in script or archive file formats. Script dumps are plain-text files containing the SQL commands required to reconstruct the  database
       to  the  state it was in at the time it was saved. To restore from such a script, feed it to psql(1). Script files can be used to reconstruct the database
       even on other machines and other architectures; with some modifications even on other SQL database products.

       The alternative archive file formats must be used with pg_restore(1) to rebuild the database.  They  allow  pg_restore  to  be  selective  about  what  is
       restored, or even to reorder the items prior to being restored.  The archive file formats are designed to be portable across architectures.

       When  used  with one of the archive file formats and combined with pg_restore, pg_dump provides a flexible archival and transfer mechanism. pg_dump can be
       used to backup an entire database, then pg_restore can be used to examine the archive and/or select which parts of the database are to  be  restored.  The
       most  flexible  output  file  format  is  the  ”custom” format (-Fc). It allows for selection and reordering of all archived items, and is compressed by
       default. The tar format (-Ft) is not compressed and it is not possible to reorder data when loading, but it is otherwise quite flexible; moreover, it  can
       be manipulated with standard Unix tools such as tar.

       While running pg_dump, one should examine the output for any warnings (printed on standard error), especially in light of the limitations listed below.

OPTIONS
       The following command-line options control the content and format of the output.

       dbname Specifies  the  name  of  the database to be dumped. If this is not specified, the environment variable PGDATABASE is used. If that is not set, the
              user name specified for the connection is used.

       -a

       –data-only
              Dump only the data, not the schema (data definitions).

              This option is only meaningful for the plain-text format. For the archive formats, you can specify the option when you call pg_restore.

       -b

       –blobs
              Include large objects in the dump. This is the default behavior except when –schema, –table, or –schema-only is specified, so the -b  switch  is
              only useful to add large objects to selective dumps.

       -c

       –clean
              Output commands to clean (drop) database objects prior to (the commands for) creating them.

              This option is only meaningful for the plain-text format. For the archive formats, you can specify the option when you call pg_restore.

       -C

       –create
              Begin the output with a command to create the database itself and reconnect to the created database. (With a script of this form, it doesn’t matter
              which database you connect to before running the script.)

              This option is only meaningful for the plain-text format. For the archive formats, you can specify the option when you call pg_restore.

       -d

       –inserts
              Dump data as INSERT commands (rather than COPY). This will make restoration very slow; it is mainly useful for making dumps that can be loaded into
              non-PostgreSQL  databases.   Also, since this option generates a separate command for each row, an error in reloading a row causes only that row to
              be lost rather than the entire table contents.  Note that the restore might fail altogether if you have rearranged column order.  The -D option  is
              safe against column order changes, though even slower.

       -D

       –column-inserts

       –attribute-inserts
              Dump  data  as INSERT commands with explicit column names (INSERT INTO table (column, …) VALUES …). This will make restoration very slow; it is
              mainly useful for making dumps that can be loaded into non-PostgreSQL databases.  Also, since this option generates a  separate  command  for  each
              row, an error in reloading a row causes only that row to be lost rather than the entire table contents.

       -E encoding

       –encoding=encoding
              Create  the  dump  in  the specified character set encoding. By default, the dump is created in the database encoding. (Another way to get the same
              result is to set the PGCLIENTENCODING environment variable to the desired dump encoding.)

       -f file

       –file=file
              Send output to the specified file. If this is omitted, the standard output is used.

       -F format

       –format=format
              Selects the format of the output.  format can be one of the following:

              p

              plain  Output a plain-text SQL script file (the default).

              c

              custom Output a custom archive suitable for input into pg_restore. This is the most flexible format in that it allows reordering of loading data as
                     well as object definitions. This format is also compressed by default.

              t

              tar    Output a tar archive suitable for input into pg_restore. Using this archive format allows reordering and/or exclusion of database objects at
                     the time the database is restored. It is also possible to limit which data is reloaded at restore time.

       -i

       –ignore-version
              Ignore version mismatch between pg_dump and the database server.

              pg_dump can dump from servers running previous releases of PostgreSQL, but very old versions are not supported anymore (currently, those  prior  to
              7.0).   Dumping  from  a server newer than pg_dump is likely not to work at all.  Use this option if you need to override the version check (and if
              pg_dump then fails, don’t say you weren’t warned).

       -n schema

       –schema=schema
              Dump only schemas matching schema; this selects both the schema itself, and all its contained objects. When this option is not specified, all  non-
              system  schemas in the target database will be dumped. Multiple schemas can be selected by writing multiple -n switches. Also, the schema parameter
              is interpreted as a pattern according to the same rules used by psql’s \d commands (see Patterns  [psql(1)]),  so  multiple  schemas  can  also  be
              selected  by  writing wildcard characters in the pattern. When using wildcards, be careful to quote the pattern if needed to prevent the shell from
              expanding the wildcards.

              Note: When -n is specified, pg_dump makes no attempt to dump any other database objects that the selected schema(s) might depend  upon.  Therefore,
              there is no guarantee that the results of a specific-schema dump can be successfully restored by themselves into a clean database.

              Note: Non-schema objects such as blobs are not dumped when -n is specified. You can add blobs back to the dump with the –blobs switch.

       -N schema

       –exclude-schema=schema
              Do  not  dump any schemas matching the schema pattern. The pattern is interpreted according to the same rules as for -n.  -N can be given more than
              once to exclude schemas matching any of several patterns.

              When both -n and -N are given, the behavior is to dump just the schemas that match at least one -n switch but no -N switches. If -N appears without
              -n, then schemas matching -N are excluded from what is otherwise a normal dump.

       -o

       –oids Dump  object  identifiers  (OIDs)  as  part of the data for every table. Use this option if your application references the OID columns in some way
              (e.g., in a foreign key constraint).  Otherwise, this option should not be used.

       -O

       –no-owner
              Do not output commands to set ownership of objects to match the original database.  By default, pg_dump issues ALTER OWNER or  SET  SESSION  AUTHO-
              RIZATION  statements  to  set  ownership  of created database objects.  These statements will fail when the script is run unless it is started by a
              superuser (or the same user that owns all of the objects in the script).  To make a script that can be restored by any user,  but  will  give  that
              user ownership of all the objects, specify -O.

              This option is only meaningful for the plain-text format. For the archive formats, you can specify the option when you call pg_restore.

       -R

       –no-reconnect
              This option is obsolete but still accepted for backwards compatibility.

       -s

       –schema-only
              Dump only the object definitions (schema), not data.

       -S username

       –superuser=username
              Specify  the  superuser  user  name to use when disabling triggers.  This is only relevant if –disable-triggers is used.  (Usually, it’s better to
              leave this out, and instead start the resulting script as superuser.)

       -t table

       –table=table
              Dump only tables (or views or sequences) matching table. Multiple tables can be selected by writing multiple -t switches. Also, the table parameter
              is  interpreted  as  a  pattern  according  to  the  same rules used by psql’s \d commands (see Patterns [psql(1)]), so multiple tables can also be
              selected by writing wildcard characters in the pattern. When using wildcards, be careful to quote the pattern if needed to prevent the  shell  from
              expanding the wildcards.

              The  -n  and  -N  switches have no effect when -t is used, because tables selected by -t will be dumped regardless of those switches, and non-table
              objects will not be dumped.

              Note: When -t is specified, pg_dump makes no attempt to dump any other database objects that the selected table(s) might  depend  upon.  Therefore,
              there is no guarantee that the results of a specific-table dump can be successfully restored by themselves into a clean database.

              Note:  The  behavior  of  the -t switch is not entirely upward compatible with pre-8.2 PostgreSQL versions. Formerly, writing -t tab would dump all
              tables named tab, but now it just dumps whichever one is visible in your default search path. To get the old behavior you  can  write  -t  ‘*.tab’.
              Also, you must write something like -t sch.tab to select a table in a particular schema, rather than the old locution of -n sch -t tab.

       -T table

       –exclude-table=table
              Do  not  dump  any  tables matching the table pattern. The pattern is interpreted according to the same rules as for -t.  -T can be given more than
              once to exclude tables matching any of several patterns.

              When both -t and -T are given, the behavior is to dump just the tables that match at least one -t switch but no -T switches. If -T appears  without
              -t, then tables matching -T are excluded from what is otherwise a normal dump.

       -v

       –verbose
              Specifies  verbose mode. This will cause pg_dump to output detailed object comments and start/stop times to the dump file, and progress messages to
              standard error.

       -x

       –no-privileges

       –no-acl
              Prevent dumping of access privileges (grant/revoke commands).

       –disable-dollar-quoting
              This option disables the use of dollar quoting for function bodies, and forces them to be quoted using SQL standard string syntax.

       –disable-triggers
              This option is only relevant when creating a data-only dump.  It instructs pg_dump to include commands to temporarily disable triggers on the  tar-
              get  tables  while  the data is reloaded. Use this if you have referential integrity checks or other triggers on the tables that you do not want to
              invoke during data reload.

              Presently, the commands emitted for –disable-triggers must be done as superuser. So, you should also specify a superuser name with -S, or  prefer-
              ably be careful to start the resulting script as a superuser.

              This option is only meaningful for the plain-text format. For the archive formats, you can specify the option when you call pg_restore.

       –use-set-session-authorization
              Output  SQL-standard  SET  SESSION  AUTHORIZATION  commands instead of ALTER OWNER commands to determine object ownership. This makes the dump more
              standards compatible, but depending on the history of the objects in the dump, might not restore properly. Also, a dump using  SET  SESSION  AUTHO-
              RIZATION will certainly require superuser privileges to restore correctly, whereas ALTER OWNER requires lesser privileges.

       -Z 0..9

       –compress=0..9
              Specify  the compression level to use in archive formats that support compression. (Currently only the custom archive format supports compression.)

       The following command-line options control the database connection parameters.

       -h host

       –host=host
              Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is running. If the value begins with a slash, it is used as the directory for  the  Unix
              domain socket. The default is taken from the PGHOST environment variable, if set, else a Unix domain socket connection is attempted.

       -p port

       –port=port
              Specifies  the  TCP port or local Unix domain socket file extension on which the server is listening for connections.  Defaults to the PGPORT envi-
              ronment variable, if set, or a compiled-in default.

       -U username

       –username=username
              User name to connect as.

       -W

       –password
              Force pg_dump to prompt for a password before connecting to a database.

              This option is never essential, since pg_dump will automatically prompt for a password if the server  demands  password  authentication.   However,
              pg_dump  will waste a connection attempt finding out that the server wants a password.  In some cases it is worth typing -W to avoid the extra con-
              nection attempt.

ENVIRONMENT
       PGDATABASE

       PGHOST

       PGPORT

       PGUSER Default connection parameters.

       This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment variables supported by libpq (see in the documentation).

DIAGNOSTICS
       pg_dump internally executes SELECT statements. If you have problems running pg_dump, make sure you are able to select information from the database using,
       for example, psql(1). Also, any default connection settings and environment variables used by the libpq front-end library will apply.

NOTES
       If  your database cluster has any local additions to the template1 database, be careful to restore the output of pg_dump into a truly empty database; oth-
       erwise you are likely to get errors due to duplicate definitions of the added objects. To make an empty database without any local  additions,  copy  from
       template0 not template1, for example:

       CREATE DATABASE foo WITH TEMPLATE template0;

       pg_dump has a few limitations:

       ? When  a  data-only  dump is chosen and the option –disable-triggers is used, pg_dump emits commands to disable triggers on user tables before inserting
         the data and commands to re-enable them after the data has been inserted. If the restore is stopped in the middle, the system catalogs might be left  in
         the wrong state.

       Members  of  tar  archives are limited to a size less than 8 GB.  (This is an inherent limitation of the tar file format.) Therefore this format cannot be
       used if the textual representation of any one table exceeds that size. The total size of a tar archive and any of the other output formats is not limited,
       except possibly by the operating system.

       The  dump  file  produced  by pg_dump does not contain the statistics used by the optimizer to make query planning decisions. Therefore, it is wise to run
       ANALYZE after restoring from a dump file to ensure good performance.

       Because pg_dump is used to transfer data to newer versions of PostgreSQL, the output of pg_dump can be loaded into newer PostgreSQL databases. It also can
       read  older PostgreSQL databases. However, it usually cannot read newer PostgreSQL databases or produce dump output that can be loaded into older database
       versions. To do this, manual editing of the dump file might be required.

EXAMPLES
       To dump a database called mydb into a SQL-script file:

       $ pg_dump mydb > db.sql

       To reload such a script into a (freshly created) database named newdb:

       $ psql -d newdb -f db.sql

       To dump a database into a custom-format archive file:

       $ pg_dump -Fc mydb > db.dump

       To reload an archive file into a (freshly created) database named newdb:

       $ pg_restore -d newdb db.dump

       To dump a single table named mytab:

       $ pg_dump -t mytab mydb > db.sql

       To dump all tables whose names start with emp in the detroit schema, except for the table named employee_log:

       $ pg_dump -t ‘detroit.emp*’ -T detroit.employee_log mydb > db.sql

       To dump all schemas whose names start with east or west and end in gsm, excluding any schemas whose names contain the word test:

       $ pg_dump -n ‘east*gsm’ -n ‘west*gsm’ -N ‘*test*’ mydb > db.sql

       The same, using regular expression notation to consolidate the switches:

       $ pg_dump -n ‘(east|west)*gsm’ -N ‘*test*’ mydb > db.sql

       To dump all database objects except for tables whose names begin with ts_:

       $ pg_dump -T ‘ts_*’ mydb > db.sql

       To specify an upper-case or mixed-case name in -t and related switches, you need to double-quote the name; else it will be folded to lower case (see  Pat-
       terns  [psql(1)]).  But  double quotes are special to the shell, so in turn they must be quoted.  Thus, to dump a single table with a mixed-case name, you
       need something like

       $ pg_dump -t ‘”MixedCaseName”‘ mydb > mytab.sql

SEE ALSO
       pg_dumpall(1), pg_restore(1), psql(1)

Application                       2008-06-08                        PG_DUMP(1)

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