LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)

ls – list directory contents

ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…

List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alphabetically if none of       -cftuvSUX nor –sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-a, –all              do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, –almost-all              do not list implied . and ..
–author              with -l, print the author of each file
-b, –escape              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
–block-size=SIZE              use SIZE-byte blocks
-B, –ignore-backups              do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l:  show              ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime
-C     list entries by columns
–color[=WHEN]              control whether color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN may be ‘never’, ‘always’, or ‘auto’
-d, –directory              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links
-D, –dired              generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
-f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst
-F, –classify              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
–file-type              likewise, except do not append ‘*’
–format=WORD              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
–full-time              like -l –time-style=full-iso
-g     like -l, but do not list owner
-G, –no-group              like -l, but do not list group
-h, –human-readable              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
–si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, –dereference-command-line              follow symbolic links listed on the command line
–dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory
–hide=PATTERN              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
–indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:              none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
-i, –inode              with -l, print the index number of each file
-I, –ignore=PATTERN              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k     like –block-size=1K
-l     use a long listing format
-L, –dereference              when  showing  file  information  for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references              rather than for the link itself
-m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, –numeric-uid-gid              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, –literal              print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)
-o     like -l, but do not list group information
-p, –indicator-style=slash              append / indicator to directories
-q, –hide-control-chars              print ? instead of non graphic characters
–show-control-chars              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)
-Q, –quote-name              enclose entry names in double quotes
–quoting-style=WORD              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, –reverse              reverse order while sorting
-R, –recursive              list subdirectories recursively
-s, –size              with -l, print size of each file, in blocks
-S     sort by file size
–sort=WORD              extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u
–time=WORD              with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status; use speci-              fied time as sort key if –sort=time
–time-style=STYLE              with  -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.  FORMAT is interpreted              like ‘date’; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files  and  FORMAT2  to              recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with ‘posix-’, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
-t     sort by modification time
-T, –tabsize=COLS              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u     with  -lt:  sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by              access time
-U     do not sort; list entries in directory order.  In combination with one_per_line  format  â€˜-1’,  it  will              show files immediately and it has no memory limitations.
-v     sort by version
-w, –width=COLS              assume screen width instead of current value
-x     list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X     sort alphabetically by entry extension
-1     list one file per line

SELinux options:
–lcontext              Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines will probably be too wide for most displays.
-Z, –context              Display security context so it fits on most displays.  Displays only mode, user, group, security context              and file name.
–scontext              Display only security context and file name.
–help display this help and exit
–version              output version information and exit
SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K 1024,  MB  1000*1000,  M       1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.
By  default, color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is equivalent to using –color=none.  Using       the  –color  option  without  the  optional  WHEN  argument  is  equivalent  to  using  –color=always.   With       –color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected to a terminal (tty).  The environment       variable LS_COLORS can influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.

Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

Report bugs to <>.

Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.       This is free software.  You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the  GNU  General  Public  License       <>.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

The  full  documentation  for  ls  is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and ls programs are properly       installed at your site, the command info ls should give you access to the complete manual.

ls 5.97                          February 2010                           LS(1)

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