LS(1) User Commands LS(1)
ls – list directory contents
ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-a, –all do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, –almost-all do not list implied . and ..
–author with -l, print the author of each file
-b, –escape print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
–block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks
-B, –ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime
-C list entries by columns
–color[=WHEN] control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be â€˜neverâ€™, â€˜alwaysâ€™, or â€˜autoâ€™
-d, –directory list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links
-D, –dired generate output designed for Emacsâ€™ dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst
-F, –classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
–file-type likewise, except do not append â€˜*â€™
–format=WORD across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
–full-time like -l –time-style=full-iso
-g like -l, but do not list owner
-G, –no-group like -l, but do not list group
-h, –human-readable with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
–si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, –dereference-command-line follow symbolic links listed on the command line
–dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory
–hide=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
–indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
-i, –inode with -l, print the index number of each file
-I, –ignore=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k like –block-size=1K
-l use a long listing format
-L, –dereference when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, –numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, –literal print raw entry names (donâ€™t treat e.g. control characters specially)
-o like -l, but do not list group information
-p, –indicator-style=slash append / indicator to directories
-q, –hide-control-chars print ? instead of non graphic characters
–show-control-chars show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is â€˜lsâ€™ and output is a terminal)
-Q, –quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes
–quoting-style=WORD use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, –reverse reverse order while sorting
-R, –recursive list subdirectories recursively
-s, –size with -l, print size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size
–sort=WORD extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u
–time=WORD with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status; use speci- fied time as sort key if –sort=time
–time-style=STYLE with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like â€˜dateâ€™; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with â€˜posix-â€™, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
-t sort by modification time
-T, –tabsize=COLS assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order. In combination with one_per_line format â€˜-1â€™, it will show files immediately and it has no memory limitations.
-v sort by version
-w, –width=COLS assume screen width instead of current value
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension
-1 list one file per line
–lcontext Display security context. Enable -l. Lines will probably be too wide for most displays.
-Z, –context Display security context so it fits on most displays. Displays only mode, user, group, security context and file name.
–scontext Display only security context and file name.
–help display this help and exit
–version output version information and exit
SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.
By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is equivalent to using –color=none. Using the –color option without the optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using –color=always. With –color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected to a terminal (tty). The environment variable LS_COLORS can influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.
Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.
Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.
Report bugs to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Copyright Â© 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command info ls should give you access to the complete manual.
ls 5.97 February 2010 LS(1)